The issue away from Trafficking
Trafficking arrived on the governmental agenda just after tension from feminists and you can this new federal ladies’ rules service. To begin with, feminine were trafficked away from Southeast Asia (notably Thailand additionally the Philippines), Latin America (Columbia and Dominican Republic and you may Africa (Ghana); following the fall of your own Berlin Wall, exchange routes moved on in order to Main and you will East Europe. Political requires had been identifying the new offence alot more broadly to help you assists prosecution and you will increasing the punishment out of five to six decades, so as that culprits could be held from inside the remand child custody. Brand new content on penal code on people trafficking was indeed revised within the 1993, that have a far more perfect definition of the fresh offense and better punishment for traffickers (Outshoorn 2004a: 195). The new posts had been presented for the a gender-basic way, and you may trafficking stayed defined as forcing men towards prostitution.
In the parliamentary debates on trafficking around that period, foreign women were portrayed as victims of unscrupulous traffickers tricked into prostitution. This framing was tied into a discourse about the divide between the rich and poor countries: female prostitutes from the ‘Third World’ were driven by poverty. Gradually, a more insidious edge crept into this discourse when Christian Democrats in parliament linked trafficking to illegal migration, opening a space for ‘false’ victims, who used the loopholes in the law to work illegally as a prostitute in the Netherlands (HTK, 1991–1992, TK 81, pp. 4994, 4995, e time they also started to argue that all women from non-EU countries working in the sex industry were victims of forced prostitution. Therefore in their view, the best remedy to stop trafficking was to prevent non-EU women from working in the Dutch sex industry in the first place. This reasoning eradicated the figure of a woman migrant deciding to work as a sex worker in the West escortbabylon.de find and who might make use of intermediaries to enter the country-with her consent. But then she was ‘illegal’ and ought to be deported.
Successive cabinets continued to refuse work permits on similar grounds, also arguing there was no national interest at stake which normally justifies extending work permits to non-EU persons. They were backed by a recurring majority in parliament; the parliamentary records show many references to the fear of foreign prostitutes entering the country which would subvert immigration policies. The fear resurfaced in the memorandum to the bill to lift the brothel ban, as one of the aims of the bill was to halt ‘the stream of foreign prostitutes’ (HTK 1996–97, 25437 (Opheffing Algemeen Bordeelverbod), no. 3 (Memorie van Toelichting), 1 July 1997, p. 13). The refusal to grant work permits was also generally justified by the aim of stopping the trafficking of women; permits would encourage traffickers to transport women into the country.
Kinds of Sex Workers
Next utilization of the newest act lead to the construction away from no lower than five kinds of prostitutes. To begin with, you’ve got the ethnically vague Dutch sex staff who willingly chooses to be hired in prostitution which is the newest holder from civil and social rights. Subsequently, there are the fresh prostitutes off their European union nations who’ll move easily inside and outside of your own Netherlands and you can work with the sex community. This category divided into one or two categories adopting the accession on the Eu of your Baltic States, Poland, Hungary, new Czech Republic and you can Slovakia when you look at the 2004, and come up with a 3rd category which can just only legally act as prostitutes if they had been separate sex professionals and never teams. For the 2007, sex professionals regarding the the fresh new Eu members was in fact accepted into an equal ground with the older European union user professionals, although third category is actually today filled up with sex pros out-of Bulgaria and Romania whenever both nations joined the fresh Eu for the reason that exact same 12 months. Like their predecessors, these women can be permitted to work as independent sex gurus, however, at this point significantly less team.